Clinics (Sao Paulo).2019;74:e1312.
Authorship, plagiarism, and copyright transfer in the scientific universe
The academic practices that result in the definition of the authorship of a scientific paper are perpetuated according to the customs or historical vision of those involved. Given the potential and substantial benefits of authorship, the improper and “unethical” inclusion of authors may seem beneficial when compared to the risk of retaliation. In fact, the hierarchy and the desire of those involved in having a work published with advisors and references in the field make such behavior common in the scientific environment. Another problem lies in the definition of the order of authors, as it does not reflect the acknowledgment each one should receive during the publication of results and may simply result from the fact that there are no widely accepted criteria for this definition.
According to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (1), the authorship of scientific papers should meet the following conditions: 1) substantial contribution to design and planning, data acquisition, or data analysis and interpretation; 2) writing and drafting of the article or the major critical revision of its intellectual content; and 3) approving the final version for publication.